Marketing environments: how macro and micro factors can affect your marketing

Understand what marketing environments are and why they are so important when drawing marketing strategies.

To make a good marketing strategy it is necessary to do some analysis, besides taking into account some forces of influence.

Noticing the influence of these factors may not be easy, is not it? These are part of our routine and end up going unnoticed, which can be very negative.

Everything that surrounds a company affects directly or indirectly in the way it will do its marketing and those are the forces of the marketing environments.

In this article, we will help you identify all the factors of the macro and microenvironment so that you boost your results.

You will learn what are the facts that surround your company and that deserve a closer look so that your entire strategy works perfectly.

It’s like a big puzzle, if a piece is placed in the wrong way, you can not conclude what was initially proposed.

But before talking about the two environments already mentioned, we need to understand what the environment context means.

What are marketing environments?

They are all external or internal market forces that affect your business. It is everything that influences marketing.

Understanding all these influencing factors helps in communication with your audience and the opportunity for you to act on their needs will be much greater.

By thinking in those terms, Kotler believed that there were various agents external to a company that affected the way in which marketing management would be done.

It is important to keep in mind that you will not always have control over everything that makes up the marketing environments. Well, those factors can suffer changes over time.

These offer opportunities and threats, that’s why it is so important to do a point-by-point analysis so that your goals are achieved through the best strategy.

Still can not understand how this can affect your business?

See below for a bit more about how the microenvironment and the macroenvironment work.

Microenvironment and the way in which your performance effects

The microenvironment is everything that is a factor of internal influence of your company. It is directly related to the competitive factor since you are the one in control of each environment that makes up this system.

The success of a marketing strategy does not only depend on the professionals in the area but also on the customers, suppliers, employees, among others.

We will go one by one, explaining the way in which each environment affects the performance of your strategy.

The company

It is the one that produces the product or offers the service.

To make a good strategic plan it is necessary that marketing professionals take into account all the departments that make up a company.

Its operation is like a great engine and each department is a part of the gear, so it is important to always have teams that are aligned with each other to ensure a brilliant management strategy.


They are fundamental pieces for the operation of a company. They are the ones who will give the necessary material for the manufacture of your products, be it a perfume, a notebook or an advertising piece.

Having agreed deadlines, correct values ​​and good communication between supplier and company are paramount in a marketing strategy.

Relevant public

They are all people who have the power to directly influence the image of your company.

Some examples of relevant people could be the press, shareholders, representatives of public entities, influencers, critics, among others.

It is essential to maintain a friendly relationship with people of this type, they have enough influence to weaken the perception of the name of your company.


This is an obvious subject. Customers are the life of a company, without their participation there would be no reason to exist.

Study in depth how your customers and your target audience behave as a whole and keep in mind each point that was discovered when creating a buyer person and your strategy.


It is the point that most take the sleep of those responsible for a company. You need to be better than all your competition.

For this, analyze the market you are part of and study each of them in detail, whether they are direct or indirect competition.

Do not you know the difference between these types of competition? We explain it to you!

Direct competition

It is what belongs to the same segment as your company.

Example: Natura and Avon are direct competitors for belonging to the same market segment, even if they have a different positioning.

Competindirect ency

It is the one that “takes away” the attention of your client, even if it is from another segment.

Example: When you go to find a gift for Valentine’s Day and you are in doubt to buy a basket of chocolates or a pair of shoes.

They are totally different companies, but both dispute the purchase attention of a consumer.


Finally, there are the intermediaries, which are those that help the operation of a company.

They have usually outsourced services, such as energy, telephone, and water.

Macro environment and its influence factors

When we refer to macroenvironment it means that we are talking about external factors that interfere in your marketing management.

What does this mean? It means that they are factors in which you can not change the way they happen. But you have the opportunity to succeed by changing the strategy.

It is important to note that this exerts a direct influence on the microenvironment.

This environment is composed of:

Demographic environment

It has to do with the characteristics of the population of a certain place. It can be a study of age, occupation, sex, density, birth rate, and other factors.

This point is very important for the identification of opportunities related to your target audience.

Economic environment

This factor is fundamental to the operation of your company.

The economy affects not only how you will make investments in your company but also the consumption behavior of your audience.

In times of economic crisis in a country, for example, people tend to avoid buying more superficial products.

It can also affect your pricing process and get to the point of interfering where your product or service will be offered.

Other things that are also related to the economic environment are the stock exchange and the price of the dollar or currencies of other countries.

The truth is that you need capital to achieve your goals and that is why this is a factor that should always be taken into account.

Natural environment

It may even seem that no, but this is an environment that can affect, and much, the business strategy.

In addition to the raw material of the products – which has to do with this environment – there are aspects to take into account such as natural catastrophes, rainy seasons, summer, among others.

Technological environment

We already had enough evidence that technology has a significant impact on everyone’s life.

With new technologies, it is not only possible to optimize your time to set up a strategy but also to offer you new search opportunities.

In addition to affecting the way, your product and service are produced and distributed.

Political-legal environment

It is very obvious how this environment affects the marketing management strategy of a company.

Laws and taxation directly affect the way in which your company will work and your strategy depends on that.

Perhaps this is the most delicate environment of all, it is full of complications and is difficult to negotiate.

Cultural environment

It is the strongest environment when placing the factors influencing the behavior of its customers.

The culture of a region or a country is what is most powerful when setting up a marketing strategy.

The positioning of a brand can be the same for everyone, but the strategy that the brand will use depends on the culture of each region.

A great example of that is Coca-Cola. It is present in more than 200 countries, but the strategy used in the USA. It is not the same one used in Asia, for example.

In many Latin countries, it is not common to drink a cherry soda, something that is more likely in the United States.

Think locally in your country how beverages vary according to each region.

This cultural environment affects the preferences, perception of value, demand, purchase process of your audience, and other various factors.

Thinking about the macro environment requires a lot of skill and study to draw a strategy that has a differential in front of your competition.

It is worth remembering that these are factors that affect all companies, of all segments. You must do it in a different way!

We saw that there are dozens of factors influencing a marketing management plan for a company, but this is not all.

Have you already heard about Myopia in Marketing?

Myopia in marketing happens when a company fails to visualize any of the factors that form the environments of marketing.

It is considered myopia when the brand ends up interpreting in a wrong way the signals that are given by each aspect of the environments or even of both environments are not perceived.

This is a very serious error and can lead to the disappearance of the brand in the market. See below some examples of brands that disappeared after a wrong interpretation of the environments of marketing.

Kodak and his cultural myopia

Kodak ended up losing space in the market simply by not closely following changes in habits – and culture – of its audience.

With the new technologies, consumers ended up migrating from analog photography to digital photography and the brand did not accompany that.

Varig and his myopia on the client

After having an empire in the world of aviation, everything went overboard from the moment the company stopped serving the needs of the client.

In this specific case, the problem was the high price of tickets at a time when air transport became popular. With new companies emerging, the lack of a good price eventually led the airline to bankruptcy.

Blockbuster and his myopia in technology

For many years Blockbuster was the reference brand in movie rental. The problem was that this stopped following closely the technological advances and that ended up leading to the disappearance of the brand.

If a marketing strategy had been designed according to technological advances, perhaps today they could be a reference in online movie rental services or streaming services.


Keeping a close eye on everything that surrounds your company is fundamental to charting a market strategy.

Regardless of whether these factors are controllable or not by the company, it is essential to accompany each change and each new desire that arises in the market.

Having a qualified team focused on always looking for the best results is the best way to manage the marketing and strategies of your business.

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